SOLAR TRAPS - the world's highest solar efficiency, lowest-cost, and most abundant energy breakthrough
Man currently consumes 17 trillion watts. Solar is ~6,000* times greater.
The world's largest, greenest, and lowest cost energy resource can create unparalleled "Trickle Up" economic prosperity.



This favorably reviewed, 57-page pending patent in 148 countries relates to a nearly 100% efficient, high temperature collector with long term storage, which dwarfs all prior solar technologies by many hundreds of percent.. Scholars have reviewed it and will soon build working Solar Traps. Once solar capture and long term storage are mastered, as herein asserted, physics laws assure us of the dawning of a multi-century Solar Age1. To be clear, these new two-way LIGHT TRAPSTM capture the solar spectrum, bar internal infrared from escaping, and enable high temperature energy storage of the world's largest energy resource to provide the safest, 24/7, lowest-cost, shortcut to mankind's inevitable Solar (safe nuclear) Age. (click a 3 minute slide show)

Painlessly funding man's transition to a Solar Age is addressed below. Mass produced Solar Traps technology is awaiting rigorous independent confirmation, but promises to generate perfectly clean electricity below ¾¢ to 1¢ / kwhr (3412 BTUs) with "one sun" applied (no costly concentrating mirrors). For reference, 1¢ per kwhr (1¢/3412BTUs) equates to oil at $17 per barrel (41¢/gal, and ~1¢ per mile electric cars). Think carefully. If less than 1¢/kwh can be brought to you, as emphatically asserted below, then wouldn't you also use electricity for space-heating and cooling, hot water, and even charge electric cars? Of course you would. Such a clean energy target is several times lower than all other alternative energy sources, and it's far lower than traditional coal, gas, oil, and all forms of even the most futuristic nuclear2 energy. Even more poignantly, the following summary of man's energy options, concludes that only one energy option is capable of being safely and affordably scaled to meet humanity's relentless 2% per year exponentially growing energy demand for many more centuries. All other options are surprisingly unsafe, uneconomical and, especially unscalable. Solar Traps make solar energy the one and only safe, lowest cost, and fully scalable perpetual option. Many assume that solar energy is "dilute" and "intermittent" and yet, collecting and storing just one little square meter of it for only 6 hours/day over the life of a solar power farm, equates to 16 tons of coal energy or about 64 barrels of oil energy. Just one square solar mile (640 acres) equates to 41,000,000 tons of coal or 16,000,000 barrels of oil. About 1% of the rich Sahara sun can supply 100% of man's 24/7 clean, low-cost energy needs - and most importantly, without altering desert water-tables to cool powerplants. 

Mastering ultra low-cost solar electricity for almost all energy applications would certainly qualify as one of man's highest achievements. But another almost twice bigger and very direct solar-thermal energy application exists - namely, on-premise solar space conditioning and hot water for homes and commercial buildings (10,000 job proposal). In principal, super low-cost electricity can slash space heating, cooling, and hot water costs by more than 5-fold. But, if high temperature and high efficiency Light Traps plus inexpensive long term thermal storage are installed immediately on-premise, then no electricity generation losses or long distance electric losses would be experienced. Thousands per home can be saved annually, (not mere hundreds with poor rooftop PV solar cells), and each building would be instantly re-appraised at a stunning 20 times the thousands saved, according to federally sponsored studies of actual real estate buyers. A very thin, 85-95% efficient, >700oF Solar Trap canopy prototype is underway.

It is widely known among energy scholars that man has had no practical long term energy policy, until know. Painless funding and implementation plans are presented below to solar power mankind; to spawn millions of jobs; dramatically slash air/water pollution, and; heal natural environments. For these several reasons, people are suggesting that Solar Traps technology is Nobel Prize fodder, and a gateway into a harmonious Solar Age 1 for many centuries. Your opinions are welcome below - especially if you can credibly identify even one other safe and affordable very long term global energy alternative. This invitational challenge is especially directed to futuristic nuclear fusion optimists. Solar IS low-cost nuclear fusion. 

         L to R:  Dan Callow, Pinnacle exec; Cong. Roscoe Bartlett, PhD; Ex-President Jimmy Carter (holding the Solar Trap                 Artist's rendition of a water-less cooled one billion watt  desert glass powerplant. All continents have deserts                document);   Ron Ace, Solar Trap inventor, and;   Dr. John Darnell, Cong. energy advisor. Atlanta Ga 

Trillion dollar annual savings mission:  Pinnacle Products primarily creates and licenses its macro technologies at very low royalties in order to stimulate record low-cost, clean, and 24/7 reliable solar energy; waterless desert thermoelectric turbine cooling; record high powerplant turbine efficiency; low-cost desalination; and similar macro scale vital needs. The internally funded tasks at Pinnacle includes prototyping technologies to help licensees commercialize them as fast as possible.     

                                                           The millennial ascent of Man

Humanity now continuously consumes 17 trillion watts (510 quadrillion or 5.1x1017 BTU/yr) - the 2%/year exponentially rising high costs of which are now perilously inhibiting the further ascent of Man. According to the 2014 World Energy Investment Outlook, about $48 trillion of investment will be needed during the next 20 years. In June of 2014, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) re-affirmed the staggering $48 trillion to meet the world's exponentially growing energy demand, while at the same time, needing to avert an alarming 4oF global temperature rise in 20 short years. During roughly the same period (35 years), mankind is expected to almost double its energy consumption to ~34 trillion watts. And in just one more short century, energy consumption is projected to rise by 2% per year to 7 TIMES more per year or, 120 trillion watts. No other alternative energy resource can SAFELY or AFFORDABLY meet these needs - not wind, not nuclear 2, not combustion 3, not deep geothermal, not tidal, not biomass, not even gloomy photovoltaic solar.   SOLAR-THERMAL is it, period. [click link to 29-nation consensus] Completely SAFE solar energy befalling earth in just one year is about 6,000 times greater than humanity presently consumes. A little more than 90% of the incident solar energy warms earth and re-radiates back into space. Less than 5-10% of the incident solar energy remains on earth as a very diffuse layer of un-recoverable bio-chemical and wind energy. The natural infrared re-radiation solar balance would remain intact even if man fully transitioned to a "Solar Age." Thus, solar capture, immediately stored as thermal energy, is a far better remedy to man's exponentially growing energy needs... ~7 times more per year every 100 years; ~49 times more per year every 200 years. Man's 1000-year, 2% per year exponential growth pattern, is a fact often overlooked by those who mistakenly linearly project the depletion of earth's energy reserves. It exponentially depletes! Solar energy is the only sufficiently large resource which can both safely - and now, inexpensively - easily satisfy man's unquenchable thirst for energy.

Until NOW, with the introduction of low-capital-cost Solar Traps technology, numerous energy studies have illustrated that all of the proposed "alternative" energy sources are neither safe nor affordable! Energy COST - the very foundation of global economies - has progressed from near 0% (long ago) to about 13% of the global economy now, with no long term letup in sight. The concepts of discovering large easy access energy deposits are long gone. Some macro economists assert that ~16% is the unsustainable breaking point of global economies. If safety (such as pollution) is included in current energy costs, then mankind has already far exceeded the "affordable" energy tipping point. Unfortunately, very few pay enough attention to this dangerously escallating energy COST impasse. Energy "cost", not mere energy "abundance," is the more acute barrier that is already subtly disabling nations. Thus, much lower cost perpetual solar energy represents the only known safe and affordable energy solution - and by extension - a global prosperity resurrection too. 

Clearly, the responsibility for implementing such a global paradigm shift towards a Solar Age, falls squarely on the various commercial energy industries. The objective of retrofitting and building thousands of gigawatt solar-electric powerplants would far exceed any one company or dozens of the world's largest companies. Thus, this fact is the prime reason why Pinnacle elected to only be an innovator and, at most, a high tech prototype enabler to numerous existing global energy companies. We are acutely aware of the magnitude of the global challenges and the sheer costs in achieving them in time to avert several looming energy and incomprehensible environmental disasters. However, Pinnacle is also developing unique and unparalleled giga financial tools to induce Solar Trap licensees to RAPIDLY achieve a record low-cost Solar Age. "We the People" demand it.

Let there be no doubt about the magnitude of this historic innovation. Nearly 100% efficient solar collection and storage is roughly 10-fold better than all previous solar technologies. By the laws of physics, solar technology cannot get much better. Practical solar energy has finally arrived. This event now makes solar technology the world's least expensive energy option employing the most abundant energy resource on earth. It requires about 1/10th as much solar collection surface area (land). Small residential and large utility solar farms can be much smaller plus far less expensive. This isn't another "supplemental" energy bandaid. In 2014, even the 29-nation International Energy Agency (IEA), in their 50-page report, concluded that "Solar Thermal" technology (not inferior PV photovoltaic) is the superior future solar-thermal solution.  Of course, Solar Traps is "thermal" technology, but the evidence shows that Solar Trap & Store is currently several times better than the best 2050 IEA thermal projections on page 23, figure 12.

Proven European High Voltage DC electric power transmission line (HVDC) technology now exists to very efficiently convey literally trillions of dollars of rich desert solar power even THOUSANDS of miles to almost all of humanity on every continent as well. AC transmission exhibits many shortcomings with just hundreds of miles. The USA especially needs to adopt this magnificent and proven European HVDC technology to desert-power all of North America. Thus, solar energy can indeed now be man's ENDLESS PRIME ENERGY resource, our lowest cost, by far the safest, and the world's cleanest energy resource. Every continent has incredibly rich desert solar energy.

The above United Nations and United States banner flags simply connote an ideal Pinnacle preference. Pinnacle gives a high priority to manufacturing such vital solar technologies in the United States in hopes of exporting such magnificent assistance to other nations. Such an approach can, in principal, achieve near full American employment while also meeting great global needs, including clean energy, boosting international economies, and enhancing geopolitical relations.

Pinnacle presently has over 150 globally issued and pending clean energy patents to license, plus many more planned patents in various states of scientific review, prototyping, and development. This intellectual property portfolio alone imposes multi-million dollar burdens, which have been totally assumed by Pinnacle Products to protect the United States (which federal and state governments do NOT fund and do NOT strategically file international patent protection "for the people"). Thus, Pinnacle has completed its initial formally peer-reviewed (and endorsed) scientific innovation phases by creating this high quality treasure trove of intellectual property "for the people." This portfolio now qualifies for support from the world's most prominent philanthropists. We know of no higher philanthropic legacy or a higher calling.

You may wish to review a selection of Pinnacle's high-tech energy technologies listed in the top navigation bar, which include:

 * The 57 page low-cost Solar Trap and Store technology. Filed in the 148 countries listed here;
 * The free Global Warming standby SOLUTION technology (not patented and free to use);

 * The globally patented potable water tera-watt THERMAL ENERGY DELIVERY technology.

           Super efficient WATERLESS4 cooled desert solid state or turbine electric generators.
Depleting desert water tables to cool desert thermoelectric powerplants (such as water cooling towers) poses a fatal flaw. Just one continuous gigawatt of waste heat for just one year would require about 3.6 billion gallons of evaporated desert well water per year. America's current 400 gigawatts of electricity (only a fraction of the total energy consumed), if generated in the rich sunny desert, would evaporate 1.8 trillion gallons per year, which would fatally drop a desert water-table by many thousands of feet per year! Waterless infrared waste heat cooling or, even forced air cooling, would be far more suitable for large scale desert powerplant cooling. Unfortunately, prior art IR radiant cooling options have been prohibitively expensive, until now. Fortunately, large surface area Solar Trap collection technology can make dry desert infrared waste heat removal extremely practical. A close inspection of very efficient Solar Trap physics reveals how it uniquely converts almost all of the available electromagnetic sunlight into high temperature heat (kinetic energy), while maintaining a cool front collection surface. The new waterless infrared powerplant cooling option allows massive infrared waste heat radiation directly from the normally cool top window surfaces of Solar Traps. The normally cool huge solar collection surface area almost begs to double as a monstrous infrared waste heat radiator surface according to equation 1.

                                  Total infrared radiation = AEC (T14 -T24)             in watts per sq. meter       (Eq 1)
                                         where A = radiation surface in sq meters,
                                                             E = emissivity,
                                                             C = a constant of 5.67 x 10-8,
                                                             T1 = the radiating surface temperature in 0K,
                                                      and T2 =  the environmental temperature in 0K.

 Example: When A= 1.0, E=1.0, T1 = 336K (145oF) and T2 = 294K (70oF), the total IR waste heat radiation would be 300 watts per sq meter

All thermomechanical heat engines (classically depicted in figure 1) are well known to scientists as relatively inefficient devices - typically only 30% to 50% efficient. [Combustion automobiles are ~20% efficient]. In 1824, Sadi Carnot firmly established the accepted heat engine maximum efficiency law of physics, which even after 190 years, continues to challenge many scientists. With Pinnacle's nearly 100% efficient Solar Trap thermal collector now possible, the Carnot heat engine theorem beckoned at least one more intense review by Pinnacle scientists. It is now possible to combine Carnot's famous KINETIC energy theorem with record high ELECTROMAGNETIC Solar Trap performance, to produce a SOLAR HEAT ENGINE (such as a powerplant) at over 70% net efficiency - only during sunlight hours. Compare that >70% estimate to realistic 12% net efficient and very expensive photovoltaic cell electricity (requiring very expensive storage). Thus, this new dry Solar Trap heat engine improvement does not overturn the strict Carnot kinetic energy theorem because it is actually an improved solar electromagnetic "solar EM heat engine," not a classical thermal expansion "Carnot heat engine." An EM heat engine is akin to adding microwave or solar electromagnetic energy, to the warm waste heat of any Carnot heat engine - clearly not in violation of classical Carnot thermal expansion heat engines. As a result, this most recent (yet unpublished) dry desert solar electricity discovery could not have evolved without the unique properties of the Solar Traps invention. Parenthetically, without this BONE DRY Solar Traps option, large numbers of desert solar powerplants would not be practical. Desert water tables would be depleted so rapidly that scaling desert solar power toward a Solar Age would be both inefficient and very expensive due to an insufficient supply of waste heat evaporative cooling water! In conclusion, dry desert Solar Trap power generation offer unlimited desert scalability, can achieve record high efficiency, and would be environmentally friendly. When independent scientific reviews of super efficient dry solar powerplants are completed, the improved Carnot Solar Trap (dry EM Heat Engines) will join the present Solar Trap publications. 

                                                  Carnot heat engine 2.svg

     Fig 1. A classical Carnot heat engine depicting T-hot input energy applied, mechanical work (W) extracted at efficiency h = (1 – Tc/Th), and where copious Tcold waste energy must be discharged in order to extract work (W).

This executive summary of the best-of-the-best Pinnacle innovations hardly does justice to the countless unplanned innovations which have emerged during our multi-year pursuit of abundant clean energy, desalination, food, shelter, and related research. But energy is the foundation of them all - including prosperity, jobs, and survival itself. At the outset, we at Pinnacle did not even speculate such profound discoveries. The profoundly efficient low-cost Solar Trap & Store technology easily qualifies as one the top inventions of all time. Of course, Pinnacle has subjected Solar Traps to independent reviews and they have been enthusiastically endorsed by the highest credentialed PhD energy and solar scientists.  All of Pinnacle's innovations are rigorously and independently reviewed 4.

A PhD US Congressman officially commended the Solar Traps inventor a  "National Treasure"5
It's far too simplistic for pessimists to conclude that Man is doomed, when the preponderance of the scientific evidence indicates that the ascent of Man and all life has only just begun - but ONLY if nourished by abundant, clean, low-cost energy.

Pinnacle Products, LLC

                                                 Realism for laymen and businessmen

Like you, we at Pinnacle, have observed all the hype about solar, wind, nuclear power, and the endless list of alternative bandaid energies for mankind. The labyrinth of claims and counter claims are daunting. Despite a Harvard survey that shows an "overwhelming 90%" of Americans endorse the adoption of solar energy, it's not that simple or solar would have been mastered LONG ago. Some straight talk and crystal clear thinking here might help.

Pinnacle is acutely aware that you need proof that Solar Traps are absolutely all that it claims - MANY TIMES (not mere "percent") better than the energy world has ever seen. That proof can only be provided to laymen with working Solar Trap models. Scientists generally require only impeccable physics and engineering theoretical models. Everyone else wants to "kick the tires." Rooftop solar models, highway solar canopies, industrial models, and even large powerplant models are what everyone wants. Everyone has earned those rights because we've endured so many unfounded "low-cost solar" expectations before. Moreover, we all know that we're facing a big race against time to beat global pollution and preserve natural resources. We know. We get it. Solar Traps can definitely meet all of your demands and will do so as rapidly as possible. Given the choice, we'd even like to push it faster than a "Manhattan Project" - perhaps with your help. Take this to the bank: It's now within our collective grasp. The genie is out of the bottle and can't be put back. We must now move fast.

There's one big prerequisite that every layman, scientist and businessman needs to  appreciate:  The fundamental laws of physics and especially "scalability" are on our side this time. When that happens, firm physics principals always enable talented engineers to bring such breakthroughs to economical practical reality. Put more candidly, when the precise laws of physics predict success, and raw materials are abundant, technologies always work. Failures can always be traced back to a lack of understanding of the unforgiving laws of physics. The physics of Solar Traps are quite simple once the novel innovation is understood. And that is precisely why Pinnacle has requested the highest credentialed scientists, engineers, and PhD solar scholars to independently evaluate Solar Traps. The resulting strong endorsements justify the urgent need to first small scale prototype and then large scale commercialize Solar Traps as soon as possible.  Solar Traps are exactly what we've all been seeking for many decades.

Rare breakthroughs like this are capable of catapulting mankind safely into centuries of harmony with nature and with all other lifeforms. Thus, mere words grossly fail to convey the importance of this early 21st century event.

As previously cited, global electric utilities (35,000 TW-hrs by 2040) need a multi-trillion dollar face lift during the next 20 years ($2.4 trillion/year) according to the EIA. One tenth that much can fully fund a human transition to a much lower cost clean Solar Age. The object is not one of accepting ever-increasing energy prices, but that of much lower energy prices. Thus, many times lower cost Solar Trap & Store technology can readily self-fund everything while simultaneously slashing U.S. emissions by a staggering 700 mega tons/year (assuming 400 one-GW of clean powerplants). In fact, the projected Solar Trap & Store generating costs are low enough to painlessly self-fund far more than the global $48T face lift, while still markedly reducing consumer energy prices.  It is estimated that a $50/year contribution per person from "We the People" can build and DEBT-FREE own 100% of America's solar electric power generation. "Debt-free" powerplants and zero fuel cost electricity is the basis of the estimated "1¢ per kwhr" electricity for America. Pinnacle Products has little interest in actually "owning" power generating hard assets. We the People do! There are endless ways to highly motivate Americans ($81T net worth and $17 trillion annual income) to contribute as little as14¢/day ($16B/year) to self fund a Solar Age within as little as 15-20 years - while also receiving electric power at or near COST (no powerplant profits).

1. Pinnacle is preparing to launch the most advanced and truly unique "Crowdfunding" plus "Causefunding" campaign ever assembled. The objective is to fund gigawatt Solar Trap powerplants for others to "copy exactly" and thus, kick-start a Solar Age. Ordinary crowdfunding models pose unusually good funding opportunities, but Pinnacle's advanced plan is capable of raising 1000s of times more funding than the historical best. Crowdfunding demands that each contributor receive a very desirable "thank you gift". Pinnacle has many record high-performance human vision gifts - such as 1) our 1,000,000 hour (114 year)  LED light bulb invention and, 2) breakthroughs in human vision optics which produces better than 20-20 vision and also corrects colorblindness! (476 million are colorblind). Billions of light bulbs, prescription and non-prescription spectacles per year, are annually consumed worldwide. The patent pending improved vision breakthrough also applies to roughly 30 billion building and vehicle glass windows. Just a small market share of the many lighting and vision applications can completely fund all of the U.S. solar powerplants at no cost to "We the People" - and beyond that, stimulate U.S. jobs to export gigawatt solar powerplants to friendly nations from the U.S. Pinnacle Products has acquired the company with the exclusive patent rights to the above human vision breakthrough WWOWtm technologies. Thus, a rapid transition to a Solar Age is likely.   

2.  An environmentally motivated non-profit foundation, a trust or, a holding company can take title to powerplants fully paid by "We the People" to guarantee ultra low-cost U.S. electricity. Pinnacle's Solar Traps patents can make such conditional demands. The funding plan will include large solar powerplants and new very long-distance high voltage DC transmission lines to serve the entire nation. The concept is not complicated. Fully paid powerplants with no fuel costs are expected to require low maintenance costs. Thus, record low-cost electricity is possible if a holding company is not permitted to profit. The resulting massive national energy savings can substitute as a perpetual economic non-governmental stimulus while achieving a Solar Age at an estimated cost of about 14¢ per day from each American. The end result of this plan can save each American many thousands per year in energy and environmental savings [an unprecedented annual return on investment to each American of many tens of thousands times his money]. 

3.  The projected success of such a combined potential enhanced Solar Vision funding program and a record high performance Solar Energy program, is unparalleled. The proceeds from the high demand consumer solar vision products are aimed at rapidly building Solar Trap power systems effectively governed by "We the People", for unparalleled trickle-up economic prosperity. Both highly motivating platforms can be globally expanded as Solar Traps and Storage systems are commercialized. If indeed the Harvard survey proves correct, and an "overwhelming 90% of Americans" truly want a Solar Age; and if Pinnacle's unparalleled trickle-up prosperity also motivates consumers to buy improved solar vision products devoted to supporting this worthy cause; then ordinary consumers can painlessly achieve better eyesight and a Solar Age, while simultaneously compelling other nations to adopt low-cost Solar Traps technology. The above "We the People" causefunding approach would not even slightly impair America's monstrous $17 trillion annual wages and salaries. In fact, millions of new jobs are expected.

Innovation is certainly not limited to techie subjects. The above financial innovations are just examples of what were previously cited as novel methods to help Solar Trap licensees rapidly implement and export clean energy technologies worldwide. The task is certainly daunting, but Pinnacle strongly asserts that "We the People" hold the un-stoppable power to meet the world's most urgent need - prosperously!

WWOWtm: is a trademark of Pinnacle Products, LLC, and WWOW Products, LLC ( url).
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Note 1. A multi century true "Solar Age" requires several vital elements that cannot be met by any other energy technology; such as hydroelectric dams, wind energy, deep geothermal, combustible fuels, nuclear or, ALL prior solar technologies. Each of them have fatal shortcomings if hypothetically scaled up to global energy demands, and profoundly fail if exponentially scaled up at our routine 2% per year to 7 or more times higher energy consumption within just one more century. A global transition to another energy-dead-end can be lethal. Safety and affordability - "saffordabity" - is essential. For example, all hydroelectric dams catastrophically silt over. Deep geothermal has very limited global access and they rapidly cool/decay when heat is extracted. Ocean (OTEC) thermal technology is far too costly. Wind energy is an extremely inefficient byproduct of solar energy and is also incapable of meeting futuristic global demands. Inefficient photovoltaic solar cells (and their poor energy storage options) require scarce raw materials that cannot be economically scaled to future global energy demands. All nuclear forms also fail "saffordability" tests (see note 2). A true Solar Age demands low capital cost, very high efficiency, extremely abundant raw materials, and reliable storage. Only "saffordable" Solar Traps and Storage technology meets all of the numerous requirements of a true Solar Age.

2. Common nuclear FISSION fuel resources are both inadequate and dangerous. Safe, non-radioactive, nuclear FUSION technology is considered only a very distant theoretical possibility facing severe physics and high cost barriers. FUSION CRITICS assert that humanity is centuries, if ever, away from safe and affordable nuclear fusion energy. Humanity dare not gamble its very survival for centuries on a high risk "unlimited" fusion energy technology. Antimatter or, matter annihilation physics, which is the ultimate nuclear energy source, is hundreds of times better than fusion energy, but is not more than an impractical obscure hypothesis. Reliable solar is sufficient to buy Man many centuries of risky nuclear research time. Again, the subject has never been one of energy "abundance." It is strictly one of safety and affordability or, to coin a word, "Saffordable." Solar is not a gamble, and is actually saffordable "unlimited radiation-less fusion energy" on the sun right now.

Note 3. Combustion fuel resources, including coal, gas, and oil are indeed very abundant, but very terminal too. Many very incorrectly claim that we have 1000 years of combustion fuel reserves - compared to today's energy consumption. However, if humanity's multi-thousand year pattern of 2% per year exponentially rising consumption continues, then the 1000 year reserves actually projects to less than 50-100 years of very UNSAFE and very UNAFFORDABLE reserves - just barely enough time to transition away from them. The same thesis applies to our radioactive FISSION fuel reserves, without even factoring in the eventual massive radioactive waste costs. Once more, "abundance" is not the central problem. SAFETY and AFFORDABILITY ("saffordability") is. None of these combustion factors begin to consider the giga-tonnage of greenhouse and other toxic combustion emissions in a world consuming 7-10 TIMES more combustibles (per year) in just one more century and perhaps 50-100 times more per year in a mere 200 more years of mankind's entire evolution. Clearly, the finite combustion age is terminal. Not only can a rapid transition to a Solar Age eliminate all those toxic concerns, a Solar Age would would preserve the trillions of tons of combustible materials for recyclable products for posterity - without burning them.

Note 4 . Solar Traps, a 10-fold superior solar technology, has been scientifically reviewed and endorsed by more than a dozen PhD physicists, engineers, solar powerplant experts, plus, in 2015, the most prestigious solar National Laboratory. The following are excerpts from a 9-page Solar Trap review by a distinguished 10-year veteran Sandia National Labs PhD solar scholar : "... one of the favorable attributes of the [angular selectivity] Solar Trap [is] the ability to collect solar heat efficiently [90%], even at one sun [not thousands of costly concentrating mirrors], and achieve a relatively high operating temperature [13750K, 20150F]." The same review of one-sun liquid (823K, 550C, 1022F) Solar Traps states: "What is clear is that the performance potential of the [liquid] Trap exceeds current state-of-the-art solar heating technologies..."  Finally, in the review conclusions: "In general, I feel that the solar Traps (high and low temperature configurations) are technologies with the potential to achieve high collection efficiency at high collection temperature, even under one sun insolation. The designs are innovative and the analysis generally well thought out."  Closing comments of a distinguished Sandia Labs PhD solar scholar : "unique", "compelling", and "certainly merits further development."  Numerous similar written conclusions from other PhD solar scholars.
   Update: Since the highest caliber Solar Trap endorsements, improved Solar Traps were invented - capable of achieving the same high solar collection efficiencies but at much higher collection temperatures [up to 3000F], and still without the need of costly concentrating mirrors. Moreover,a giant leap forward in Solar TraP Powerplant radiant cooling and partial waste heat recovery has been discovered. This enables water-less desert powerplant cooling and nearly double powerplant efficiencies. By far, the most alluring feature of desert Solar Trap electricity is the novel water-less cooling, which permits unlimited rich desert power scalability without depleting scarce desert well-water. That, in turn, imposes an even more compelling case to widely adopt globally proven very long distance HVDC transmission line technology (the "global super grid") to usher in inexpensive rich desert solar energy to entire nations - not for just conventional electricity, but clean, speed-of-light delivery for residential and industrial needs, and also for supper efficient electric vehicles (EV's).

Note 5. US Congressman Roscoe Bartlett (PhD/energy expert), officially declared Ron Ace (Solar Trap inventor) a  "National Treasure" (click)
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